Integrative Proposals of Sports Monitoring: Subjective Outperforms Objective Monitoring

Montull, L., Slapšinskaitė-Dackevičienė, A., Kiely, J., Hristovski, R. & Balagué, N. Integrative Proposals of Sports Monitoring: Subjective Outperforms Objective Monitoring. Sports Medicine – Open 8, 41 (2022).


Current trends in sports monitoring are characterized by the massive collection of tech‑based biomechanical, physiological and performance data, integrated through mathematical algorithms. However, the application of algorithms, predicated on mechanistic assumptions of how athletes operate, cannot capture, assess and adequately promote athletes’ health and performance. The objective of this paper is to reorient the current integrative proposals of sports monitoring by re‑conceptualizing athletes as complex adaptive systems (CAS). CAS contain higher‑order perceptual units that provide continuous and multilevel integrated information about performer–environment interactions. Such integrative properties offer exceptional possibilities of subjective monitoring for outperforming any objective monitoring system. Future research should investigate how to enhance this human potential to contribute further to athletes’ health and performance. This line of argument is not intended to advocate for the elimination of objective assessments, but to highlight the integrative possibilities of subjective monitoring.