Behrens, M. et al. Fatigue and Human Performance: An Updated Framework. Sports Med 53, 7–31 (2023).
Fatigue has been defined differently in the literature depending on the field of research. The inconsistent use of the term fatigue complicated scientific communication, thereby limiting progress towards a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Therefore, Enoka and Duchateau (Med Sci Sports Exerc 48:2228–38, 2016, ) proposed a fatigue framework that distinguishes between trait fatigue (i.e., fatigue experienced by an individual over a longer period of time) and motor or cognitive task-induced state fatigue (i.e., self-reported disabling symptom derived from the two interdependent attributes performance fatigability and perceived fatigability). Thereby, performance fatigability describes a decrease in an objective performance measure, while perceived fatigability refers to the sensations that regulate the integrity of the performer. Although this framework served as a good starting point to unravel the psychophysiology of fatigue, several important aspects were not included and the interdependence of the mechanisms driving performance fatigability and perceived fatigability were not comprehensively discussed. Therefore, the present narrative review aimed to (1) update the fatigue framework suggested by Enoka and Duchateau (Med Sci Sports Exerc 48:2228–38, 2016, ) pertaining the taxonomy (i.e., cognitive performance fatigue and perceived cognitive fatigue were added) and important determinants that were not considered previously (e.g., effort perception, affective valence, self-regulation), (2) discuss the mechanisms underlying performance fatigue and perceived fatigue in response to motor and cognitive tasks as well as their interdependence, and (3) provide recommendations for future research on these interactions. We propose to define motor or cognitive task-induced state fatigue as a psychophysiological condition characterized by a decrease in motor or cognitive performance (i.e., motor or cognitive performance fatigue, respectively) and/or an increased perception of fatigue (i.e., perceived motor or cognitive fatigue). These dimensions are interdependent, hinge on different determinants, and depend on body homeostasis (e.g., wakefulness, core temperature) as well as several modulating factors (e.g., age, sex, diseases, characteristics of the motor or cognitive task). Consequently, there is no single factor primarily determining performance fatigue and perceived fatigue in response to motor or cognitive tasks. Instead, the relative weight of each determinant and their interaction are modulated by several factors.Read More