Carrick-Ranson, G., Howden, E. J. & Levine, B. D.
Annu Rev Med 73, 1–15 (2021).
The global population is rapidly aging, with predictions of many more people living beyond 85 years. Age-related physiological adaptations predispose to decrements in physical function and functional capacity, the rate of which can be accelerated by chronic disease and prolonged physical inactivity. Decrements in physical function exacerbate the risk of chronic disease, disability, dependency, and frailty with advancing age. Regular exercise positively influences health status, physical function, and disease risk in adults of all ages. Herein, we review the role of structured exercise training in the oldest old on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength and power, attributes critical for physical function, mobility, and independent living.